Whether Homophobia is More Common in the Western World

Qualitative Systematic Literature Review Question: Is Homophobia more Common in the Western World?
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Whether Homophobia is More Common in the Western World
Historical evidence dispels the notion that Homophobia is more common in the western world. Further, evidence shows that the L.G.B.T. and other alternative gender expressions and identities are not an alien concept in other regions of the world. Homophobia is the discrimination, bias, prejudice and stigma perpetrated against the members of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population. Evidence shows that the concept homophobia on L.G.B.T. people arose in the 19th century.
Same sex behavior has been regarded a sin. Many religions object to the same sex relations or behavior and is regarded as a greatest disapprove in the Abrahamic faiths. However, not all religions that are against Homophobia, Shinto, for example is silent on the whole issue. Moreover, while Homophobia is regarded as a western concept, few societies in other regions on the globe have tolerated and accepted the homosexual behavior.
Despite the growing concept of homosexuality in the western world, there is also evidence that other regions especially in the east and south part of the world have began appreciating and tolerating the concept. However the identity, the social and physical development for the L.G.B.T. community continue to be restricted by social norms, bias, discrimination, prejudice, and negative attitudes against the group. This paper seeks to answer the question as to whether the homophobia concept is more entrenched in western parts of the globe than other regions. In carrying out this research, both the qualitative and quantitative research methods shall be significant.

Methodology of the Research
Sexuality is a complex and a vast area in humans. It is a central aspect of humanity and it encompasses sex, sex identity, sexual orientation, roles, intimacy and pleasure (Jadwin-Cakmak, et al, 2015). Sexuality is also experienced and expressed in many ways such as attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, values desires, practices, relations and roles pleasure (Jadwin-Cakmak, et al, 2015). While sexuality may include all these dimensions, research shows that sexuality is influenced by physical, biological, legal, ethical, cultural, psychological, economic, historical and religious factors.
There are also myths, misconceptions, and general misunderstanding on the concept of sexuality and Homophobia. Research shows that those who practice sexuality that is not concomitant with certain practice of some people, and then such a behavior is treated with contempt and bias, while the individuals are discriminated, and stigmatized pleasure (Jadwin-Cakmak, et al, 2015). This research will embrace surveys, interviews, filing of questionnaires and use of already research materials such as journals, print media, online resources, books and websites.
With the qualitative research methods, this research embraced sampling technique. We able to conduct samples research samples from 11 lesbians, 7 gay, 6 bisexual, 8 transgender and 2 queer members pleasure (Jadwin-Cakmak, et al, 2015). The basis of the methodology was essentially gerontology. We encouraged a research of questions that endeavored to promote social change, understanding and manifestations of L.G.B.T.Q. members pleasure (Jadwin-Cakmak, et al, 2015). The research too sought to identify the sources of bias, prejudice, discrimination, and contempt for the L.G.B.T.Q. members. The information was also sourced from the L.G.B.T.Q. organizations.
At the end of our research, a total population of 172 contacts had been established. Other criteria that made this research a success was the follow-up research method. We made contact follow ups for the self-identity and self-proclaimed L.G.B.T.Q. members in U.S. (Budge, Keller and Sherry, 2015). Further, there are some of the members who were invited to complete well structured questionnaires and inquiries that consisted both long and short questions. The questionnaires consisted two sections; Section A that consisted of short socio-demographic questions about the individual such as the age, sex, place of residence and marital status (Budge, Keller and Sherry, 2015). Section B consisted of well designed questions aligned to the goals and objectives of the research.
The Participants
The research show 157 respondents and contacts respond to our research. The gender of the respondents or the participants was taken into account; 80 male respondents and 77 women respondents (Budge, Keller and Sherry, 2015). The age of the participants ranged between 21 years to 70 years of age. Over 51% of the participants identified themselves as gay, 29% as lesbians, 12% as bisexual and 18% as transgender.
Research Design
This research is basically a descriptive in nature. The objective of this research is to describe the events, situations and phenomenon that show subjugation, discrimination, bias and prejudice and Homophobia meted against the L.G.B.T.Q. members in western parts of the globe and other areas (Creighton, et al, 2019). Further, the research will determine whether homophobia concept is a western concept (Creighton, et al, 2019). The descriptive design used in this research will indicate the accuracy the possible situations and circumstances that the L.G.B.T.Q. members goes through.
The research design used the scientific ways of observation, describing and analyzing every situation that we came across. In the present research the normal life, social life and personal life of the L.G.B.T.Q. members were observed and analyzed (Creighton, et al, 2019). Further, the study too tried to understand the lives these members especially in regions where subjugation, discrimination and bias was at the pick (Creighton, et al, 2019). Many other important aspects that the research took note of were; mental health, sexual health, violence and the interaction of the members with aspects of the law in respective countries and states.
The respondents and participants of this research study are both male and female in the U.S. There is no exact estimation of numbers of the L.G.B.T.Q. members in the area of study (Ferlatte, et al, 2019). There are also no adequate resources of research study that focuses on Homophobia in the western part of the globe and other regions. The present study demonstrates and attempts to understand the problems that the members go through (Ferlatte, et al, 2019). It was hard to identify these members as visibility of the members is low due to the negative attitudes and sanctions from the societies against the members (Ferlatte, et al, 2019). During the study it was difficult to trace the L.G.B.T.Q. members for fear of persecution and ridicule.

The figure below shows the distribution of the L.G.B.T.Q. in our area of study
Table 1.0 Classification of Respondents
Sexual Identity No. of respondents(n=23) %

Lesbians 124 40.79

Gay 064 21.05

Bisexual 056 18.42

Transgender 10 0.10

Other 060 19.74

Total 304 100

Sources of Data
The source of data and information used in this study is divided into two main area; primary and secondary sources. The primary sources include data collected directly from the respondents and participants of the study (Casey, et al, 2019). The secondary sources of data and information for this research include books, journals, reports, and government sources (Casey, et al, 2019). Other resources included those obtained from non-governmental organizations and charities working for human rights, L.G.B.T.Q., health, education, gender and HIV/AIDS.
Tools and Techniques Used in the Research Study
Focus group discussions, interviews and questionnaires are the main tools and techniques used in this study to collect information and data. Interview is a method that uses verbal and physical methods to collect data (Casey, et al, 2019). The researchers had undergone training on the use of the various methods of collecting data and information. Further, the researchers had participated in workshops and worked for various social welfare institutions (Casey, et al, 2019). Additionally, exposure visits to the organizations identified as working for the L.G.B.T.Q.
After preparing and conduction of the interviews, we undertook to discuss the results with experts working with the L.G.B.T.Q. groups in the concerned areas. The interviews covered both the informal, non-verbal, efficient and effective means of collecting data (Saewyc, et al, 2006). The participants and the respondents of this study came from rural, urban and semi-urban areas of the cities and towns covered (Saewyc, et al, 2006). Further, it was released that interview was the most flexible model of undertaking a study or research. Interview allowed a permissive atmosphere especially when interacting with the respondents. It further facilitated rephrasing of questions whenever the questions were unclear to the respondents.
Focused Group Discussions
Focused group discussion is one of the qualitative methods of research used in this research. It is a method that allowed the researcher to inquire or ask the respondents questions simultaneously and systematically (Saewyc, et al, 2006). This research method was conducive especially where collection of data was focused on group of people at one go. Further, focus group discussion was appropriate in this study, especially where the focus of the research was to explore societal or people views or understanding on a particular matter (Saewyc, et al, 2006). It is a method that makes sense to employ methods and models that engage and actively examine people of group’s beliefs and actions. It turned out those focus group discussions was a suitable method of undertaking research of the L.G.B.T.Q.
Group Discussions
The study also embraced group discussions, where data was collected from already prepared questions and framing of questions to elicit a particular response from the respondents. On some issues were well responded to in groups than individually and vice versa (Saewyc, et al, 2006). The internal problems of the L.G.B.T.Q. were well discussed and covered objectively in groups than individually. Group discussions, therefore, facilitated and helped the researchers gain a lot of insights on the plight of the L.G.B.T.Q. members and other intricate issues concerning the group (Saewyc, et al, 2006). However, caution must be exercised while undertaking group discussions. Fewer or limited questions must be undertaken to sustain the interest of the respondents.
Main Study
Both the respondents and the participants were approached while undertaking this study and a rapport built. The issues and contents of confidentiality were shared between the researchers and the respondents. Freedom and rights of the participants and the respondents was also ensured. The respondents were assured of their rights to privacy, and promised that whenever they felt that their rights were toppled upon, they had to right to remain silent or ignore the question. Averagely, a single interview took about 45 minutes.
Ethical Issues and Considerations
1. Privacy, freedom and rights of the respondents were ensured.
2. Aim, objectives, goals and implications of the study was communicated to the respondents in time.
3. Confidentiality of information, data and respondents was assured.
4. Written and verbal consents of the participants and the respondents were obtained way before the interviews.
The research reveals that Cypriots has been grouped in the same category with L.G.B.T.Q. and homophobic in Europe. The study also reveals that the Cypriots have little tolerance to the unmarried, homosexuals, and foreigners as compared to the Europeans (Christopher, 2007). I summarize below the findings of the research and main telling issues seeking to established public opinion and attitudes concerning Homophobia.
Lesbian Relationships
The study reveals that in the last decade, the public’s approach towards lesbianism has increasingly become hostile not only in western parts of the globe, but also whole world. The researchers of this study attributed this phenomenon to the deterioration and discrimination of same sex relations and legal framework and development that criminalizes same sex relations in most countries (Christopher, 2007). Moreover, it is believed through the research study that same sex relations has become more visible and more liberal to the members of the public and therefore less attractive and appealing to people.
Gay Marriages and Relations
Again majority of the respondents both in Europe, western part of the globe and other areas are objected to gay relations. 75% of the respondents are objected to these arrangements, and an objection that spans in all groups of respondents and participants who participated in the research (Christopher, 2007). Again, the married, elderly members of society, parents and uneducated persons are among the strong objectors of gay relations across as revealed by the study. Moreover, 7 out of 10 persons engaged in the study oppose the idea that children be raised by gay parents and only people between 21-25 years old seem to be embracing gay parenthood (Christopher, 2007). These findings agree with the popular misconception, perception and belief that gay or same sex relations is unpopular and unwelcome in most sections of the world.
Sexual orientation is factors or a tool for subjugation and discrimination in most part of the world. Countries like Portugal, Cyprus, Estonia and Denmark consider L.G.B.T.Q. members as criminals and anti-social and therefore the members face harassment, violence and discrimination from the members of public (Christopher, 2007). Majority of the members of the public interviewed considered L.G.B.T.Q. members as a taboo, further the secondary sources of data revealed that about 87% of the people in Cyprus, 66% in E.U., 89% of Europeans consider L.G.B.T.Q. unacceptable.
Early study and survey confirms that Homophobia has been wide spread in Europe and other western parts of the world. The study also reveals that Africa and Asia is very intolerant to same sex marriages or relationships (Christopher, 2007). Additionally, the research reveals that the levels of intolerance against the L.G.B.T.Q. members in Africa and Asia is significantly high than in western parts of the globe and Europe.
The globe is divided on L.G.B.T.Q. with some regions being liberal while some regions being intolerant of the group. Greater acceptance as the study reveals is in more secular and affluent states and regions (Pereira, et, al, 2018). As the U.S. and other developed states grapple with the whole issue of L.G.B.T.Q. and particularly on discrimination, subjugation, harassment, bias and hate on the group members, this research confirms a huge variance by states and regions (Russell and Bohan, 2006). The broader question that many are grappling with as revealed by this study is whether to accept or reject the whole issue of L.G.B.T.Q.
The secondary sources of data reveals that L.G.B.T.Q. finds a wide acceptance in Latin America, northern America, European Union, but a wide and adherent rejection in countries that profess Islam faith and in Africa. Also, the concept of L.G.B.T.Q. according to the secondary sources has received a negative reception in Russia and Asia (Pereira, et, al, 2018). Divided opinion on whether to accept or reject the whole idea of homosexuality engulfs countries such as Israel, Bolivia and Poland (Pereira, et, al, 2018). Fair attitudes towards homosexuality have been recorded in Canada, South Korea and in the U.S. In these three countries, the attitudes towards homosexuals have in the past years received positive feedbacks.

Figure 2.0 shows the regions where L.G.B.T.Q. is acceptable and where it is rejected

The study also reveals that L.G.B.T.Q. is highly acceptable in communities, societies and countries where region is not central in the lives of people. Further, the study reveals that homosexual behaviors are wide spread in affluent or rich countries (Kulpa, 2014). In contrast, poor countries with high levels of religiosity, a few number of individuals belief in L.G.B.T.Q. (Kulpa, 2014). Among these countries the few who appreciates homosexuality are the educated and the affluent persons.
Age is also a factor in determining whether an individual accepts homosexuality or rejects it. The study reveals that young people offer tolerant views about L.G.B.T.Q. and homosexuality compared to the older or senior members of the society (Kulpa, 2014). Further, gender plays a significant role in the whole play; while gender differences are not very prevalent, the study reveals that more women offered good reception to homosexual relations than men.
Figure 3.0 shows preference of homosexuality among men and women

Limitations of the Study
The following are the limitations of the study;
1. Due to the open nature of the study and lack of confidence some of the respondents may have not responded accurately.
2. The study is only applicable to a limited and screwed population, those in the rural, semi-urban and urban areas.
3. The study was only confined to particular issue; Homophobia, discrimination, harassment, violence and homosexuality.

The view that L.G.B.T.Q. should be accepted is predominant and prevalent in western world than any other regions; Asia, Africa alike. The opinion about homosexuality is negative in Asia, Africa and regions that profess religion, and positive in western world. And therefore the harassment, bias, subjugation and discrimination meted against the L.G.B.T.Q. members are more prone in these states or regions than in the western world. Religious practices, social norms, age and civilization levels dominantly play significant role in accepting and rejecting homosexuality on earth.


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